PUBLICATIONS

 

Many papers are linked here--if you need something that hasn't been uploaded, please send me an email.

 

BOOKS, BOOK CHAPTERS, EDITED VOLUMES

 

• G. G. Richard III, A. Case, M. Modhuparna, E. Hahne, Aisha Ali-Gombe, Digital Investigation and the Trojan Defense, Revisited. In: Ijeh AC, Curran K, editors. Crime Science and Digital Forensics: A Holistic View, Science Publishers, an imprint of CRC press (Taylor and Francis Group), Boca Raton, FL, USA. 2020.

 

• M. H. Ligh (Author), A. Case (Author), J. Levy (Author), A. Walters (Author), G. G. Richard III (Technical Editor), The Art of Memory Forensics: Detecting Malware and Threats in Windows, Linux, and Mac Memory, Wiley, 2014.

 

• V. Roussev, L. Wang, G. G. Richard III, L. Marziale, "A Cloud Computing Platform for Large-scale Forensic Computing," In Peterson, G., Shenoi S., Research Advances in Digital Forensics V, Springer, 2009.

 

• L. Marziale, S. Movva, G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, L. Schwiebert, "Massively-Threaded Digital Forensics Tools," In ChangTzun Lu (ed.), Handbook of   Research on Computational Forensics, Digital Crime and Investigation:   Methods and Solutions, IGI Global, 2009.

 

• V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, V. Marziale, "Classprints: Class-aware Similarity Hashes." In Ray, I., Shenoi, S. (eds.), Research Advances in Digital Forensics IV. Springer, 2008. ISBN: 978-0-387-84926-3.

 

• G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, L. Marziale, "In-place File Carving." In Craiger, P., Shenoi, S. (eds.), Research Advances in Digital Forensics III. Springer, 2007. ISBN: 978-0-387-73741-6, pp. 217-230.

 

• G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "Digital Forensics Tools: The Next Generation." In Kanellis et al (ed.), Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace. Idea Group Publishing, 2006. ISBN: 1591408725, pp.75-90.

 

• G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "Toward Secure, Audited Processing of Digital Evidence: Filesystem Support for Digital Evidence Bags." In Olivier, M., Shenoi, S. (eds.), Research Advances in Digital Forensics II. Springer, 2006. ISBN: 0387368906, pp.29-40.

 

• Y. Chen, V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, Y. Gao, "Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Forensics." In Pollitt, M., Shenoi, S. (eds.), Research Advances in Digital Forensics. Springer, 2005. ISBN: 0387300120, pp.271-282.

 

• F. Adelstein, S. Gupta, G. G. Richard III, L. Schwiebert, Fundamentals of Mobile and Pervasive Computing, McGraw-Hill, 2004.

 

• G. G. Richard III, Service and Device Discovery: Protocols and Programming, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

 

• M. B. Kooijmans, B. Foix, T. Newling, G. G. Richard III, S. Tu, Experiences Moving a Java Application to OS/390, IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization, 1999.

 

 

PAPERS

 

• R. Maggio, A. Case, A. Ali-Gombe, G. G. Richard III, "Seance: Divination of Tool-Breaking Changes in Forensically Important Binaries," Proceedings of the 2021 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS), July 2021, virtual.

 

• A. Ali-Gombe, G. G. Richard III, "The Recreation and Visualization of Runtime Objects Relationship from Process Memory Images," Proceedings of the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), February 2021, Virtual Meeting.

 

• M. Manna, A. Case, G. G. Richard III, "Performing Mac Memory Analysis Using Objective-C and Swift Data Structures," Proceedings of the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), February 2021, Virtual Meeting.

 

• S. Sudhakaran, A. Ali-Gombe, G. G. Richard III, "Examining the Impact of Garbage Collection and Process States in Userland Memory Forensics," Proceedings of the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), February 2021, Virtual Meeting.

 

• A. Orgah,  G. G. Richard III, A. Case, "MemForC: Memory Forensics Corpus Creation for Malware Analysis," Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, 2021.

 

• S. Sudhakaran, A. Ali-Gombe, A. Orgah, A. Case, G. G. Richard III, "AmpleDroid Recovering Large Object Files from Android Application Memory," Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, 2020.

 

• A. Ali-Gombe, A. Tambaoan, A. Gurfolino, G. G. Richard III, "App-Agnostic Post-Execution Semantic Analysis of Android In-Memory Forensics Artifacts," Proceedings of the Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC), 2020.

 

• S. Paruchuri, A. Case, G. G. Richard III, "Gaslight Revisited: Efficient and Powerful Fuzzing of Digital Forensics Tools," Computers and Security, vol. 97, 2020.

 

• A. Case, R. Maggio, M. Firoz-Ul-Amin, M. Jalalzai, A. Ali-Gombe, M. Sun, G. G. Richard III, "Hooktracer: Automatic Detection and Analysis of Keystroke Loggers Using Memory Forensics", Computers and Security, vol. 96, 2020.

 

• A. Case, R. Maggio, M. Manna, G. G. Richard III, "Memory Analysis of macOS Page Queues," Proceedings of the 2020 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS), July 2020, Memphis, TN.

 

 • A. Ali-Gombe, S. Sudhakaran, A. Case, G. G. Richard III, "DroidScraper: A Tool for Android In-Memory Object Recovery and Reconstruction," Proceedings of the 22nd International Symposium on Research in Attacks, Intrusions and Defenses (RAID 2019), Beijing, China, 2019.

 

• M. Jalalzai, C. Busch, G. G. Richard III, "Proteus: Proteus: A Scalable BFT Consensus Protocol for Blockchains," Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain-2019), Atlanta, GA, 2019.

 

• M. Jalalzai, C. Busch, G. G. Richard III, "An Experimental Evaluation of BFT Protocols for Blockchains," Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Blockchain (ICBC 2019), San Diego, CA, 2019.


• A. Case, M. Jalalzai, M. Firoz-Ul-Amin, R. Maggio, A. Ali-Gombe, M. Sun, G. G. Richard III, "HookTracer: A System for Automated and Accessible API Hooks Analysis," Proceedings of the 2019 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS), July 2019, Portland, OR.

 

• C. Weems, I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, J. Russell, E. Neil, "Susceptibility and Resilience to Cyber Threat: Findings from a Scenario Decision Program to Measure Secure and Insecure Computing Behavior," PLOS ONE, 2018.

 

• N. Lewis, A. Case, A. Ali-Gombe, G. G. Richard III, "Memory Forensics and the Windows Subsystem for Linux," Proceedings of the 2018 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS), Best Student Paper Award, July 2018, Providence RI.

 

• R. Bhatia, B. Saltaformaggio, S. J. Yang, A. Ali-Gombe, X. Zhang, D. Xu, G. G. Richard III, "Tipped Off by Your Memory Allocator: Device-Wide User Activity Sequencing from Android Memory Images," Proceedings of the 2018 Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS 2018), February 2018, San Diego, CA.

 

• A. Ali-Gombe, B. Saltaformaggio, R. Ramanujam, D. Xu, G. G. Richard III, "Towards a More Dependable Hybrid Analysis of Android Malware Using Aspect-Oriented Programming," Computers and Security (COSE), vol. 73, March 2018.

 

• A. Case, A. Das, S-J Park, R. Ramanujam, G. G. Richard III, "Gaslight: A Comprehensive Fuzzing Architecture for Memory Forensics Frameworks," Proceedings of the 2017 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS), August 2017, Austin, TX.

 

• J. D. Russell, C. F. Weems, I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, "Self-reported Secure and Insecure Cyber Behavior: Factor Structure and Associations with Personality Factors," Journal of Cyber Security Technology. DOI:10.1080/23742917.2017.1345271.

 

• A. Case, G. G. Richard III, “Memory Forensics: The Path Forward,” Journal of Digital Investigation, (20)3, pp. 23-33, 2017.

 

• J. Sylve, V. Marziale, G. G. Richard III, "Modern Windows Hibernation File Analysis," Journal of Digital Investigation, (20)3, pp. 16-22, 2017.

 

• B. Saltaformaggio, R. Bhatia, X. Zhang, D. Xu, G. G. Richard III, “Screen after Previous Screens: Spatial-Temporal Recreation of Android App Displays from Memory Images,” Proceedings of the 2016 USENIX Security Symposium, August 2016, Austin, TX.

 

• W. Johnson, A. Luzader, I. Ahmed, V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, C. Lee, “Development of Peer Instruction Questions for Cybersecurity Education,” Proceedings of the USENIX Advances in Security Education Workshop (ASE ’16), August 2016, Austin, TX.

 

• A. Ali-Gombe, G. G. Richard III, I. Ahmed, V. Roussev, “Don’t Touch that Column: Portable, Fine-Grained Access Control for Android’s Native Content Providers,” Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WiSec), July, 2016, Darmstadt, Germany.

 

• A. Case, G. G. Richard III, "Detecting Objective-C Malware through Memory Forensics," Proceedings of the 2016 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS), Best Paper Award, August 2016, Seattle, WA.

 

J. Sylve, V. Marziale, G. G. Richard III, "Pool Tag Quick Scanning for Windows Memory Analysis," Proceedings of the 2016 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS-EU), March 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland.

 

A. Tamrakar, J. Russell, I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, C. Weems, "SPICE: A Software Tool for Bridging the Gap Between End-user’s Insecure Cyber Behavior and Personality Traits," CODASPY 2016, New Orleans, LA.

 

A. Ali-Gombe, I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "AspectDroid: An Android App Analysis System", CODASPY 2016, New Orleans, LA.

 

A. Ali-Gombe, I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "OpSeq: Android Malware Fingerprinting," Proceedings of the 2015 Program Protection and Reverse Engineering Workshop (PPREW), collocated with ACSAC 2015, Los Angeles, CA.

 

A. Case, G. G. Richard III, "Advancing Mac OS X Rootkit Detection," Proceedings of the 2015 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS 2015), August 2015, Philadelphia, PA.

 

J. Grier, G. G. Richard III, "Rapid Forensic Imaging of Large Disks with Sifting Collectors," Proceedings of the 2015 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS 2015), Best Paper Award, August 2015, Philadelphia, PA.

 

G. G. Richard III, A. Case, "In Lieu of Swap: Analyzing Compressed RAM in Mac OS X and Linux," Proceedings of the 2014 Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS 2014), Best Paper Award, August 2014, Denver, CO.  Slides are here.

 

G. G. Richard III, I. Ahmed, "Compressed RAM and Live Forensics," Proceedings of the 66th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), February 2014, Seattle, WA.

 

I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, “Kernel Pool Monitoring for Live Forensics,” Proceedings of the 66th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), February 2014, Seattle, WA.

 

I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, A. Zoranic, V. Roussev, "Integrity Checking of Function Pointers in Kernel Pools via Virtual Machine Introspection," Proceedings of the 16th Information Security Conference (ISC 2013), Best Paper Award, Dallas, TX.

 

I. Ahmed, A. Zoranic, S. Javaid, G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "IDTchecker: Rule-based Integrity Checking of Interrupt Descriptor Tables in Cloud Environments," Proceedings of the 9th IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, January 2013, Orlando, Florida.

 

I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, "Live Forensic Analysis of Kernel Code for Malware Detection in Cloud Computing Environments", Extended Abstract, Proceedings of the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), February 2013, Outstanding Research Award, Washington, DC.

 

S. Javaid, A. Zoranic, I. Ahmed, G. G. Richard III, "Atomizer: A Fast, Scalable and Lightweight Heap Analyzer for Virtual Machines in a Cloud Environment," Proceedings of the 6th Layered Assurance Workshop (LAW'12), in conjunction with the 28th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC'12), December 2012, Orlando, Florida.

 

I. Ahmed, S. Obermeier, M. Naedele, G. G. Richard III, "SCADA Systems: Challenges for Forensic Investigators," IEEE Computer, Vol. 45, No. 12, December 2012.

 

I. Ahmed, S. Javaid, A. Zoranic, G. G. Richard III, "ModChecker: Kernel Module Integrity Checking in the Cloud Environment," Proceedings of CloudSec 2012: The International Workshop on Security in Cloud Computing, Pittsburgh, PA, 2012.

 

J. Sylve, A. Case, L. Marziale, G. G. Richard III, "Acquisition and Analysis of Volatile Memory from Android Devices,"  Journal of Digital Investigation, (8)3, 2011.

 

G. G. Richard III, "Kernel Version-Independent Tools for Deep, Live Digital Forensics Investigation," Extended Abstract, Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, 2010.

 

A. Case, L. Marziale, C. Neckar, G. G. Richard III, "Treasure and Tragedy in kmem_cache Mining for Live Forensics Investigation," Proceedings of the 10th Annual Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2010), Portland, OR, 2010.

 

A. Case, L. Marziale, G. G. Richard III, "Dynamic Recreation of Kernel Data Structures for Live Forensics," Proceedings of the 10th Annual Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2010), Portland, OR, 2010.

 

G. G. Richard III, "The Impact of Multicore CPUs and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) on Digital Forensics Tool Design," Extended Abstract, Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, 2009, Best Presentation Award.

 

G. G. Richard III, "A Highly Immersive Approach to Teaching Reverse Engineering," Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test (CSET 2009), co-located with USENIX Security 2009, Montreal, CA.

 

V. Roussev, L. Wang, G. G. Richard III, L. Marziale, "MMR: A Platform for Large-Scale Forensic Computing," Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, 2009.

 

M. Kaur, S. Bhatt, L. Schwiebert, G. G. Richard III, "An Efficient Protocol for Service Discovery in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proceedings of 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Service Discovery and Composition in Ubiquitous and Pervasive Environments (SUPE'08), co-located with GLOBECOM 2008, New Orleans, LA.

 

A. Case, A. Cristina, L. Marziale, G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "FACE: Automated Digital Evidence Discovery and Correlation," Proceedings of the 8th Annual Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2008), Baltimore, MD, 2008.

 

V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, L. Marziale, "Hash-based Classification of Data: Class-based Similarity Hashing," Proceedings of the Fourth Annual IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Kyoto, Japan, 2008.

 

L. Marziale, G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "Massive Threading: Using GPUs to Increase the Performance of Digital Forensics Tools," Proceedings of the 7th Annual Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2007), Boston, MA, 2007.

 

V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, L. Marziale, "Multi-Resolution Similarity Hashing," Proceedings of the 7th Annual Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2007), Boston, MA, 2007.

 

G.G. Richard III, V. Roussev, L. Marziale, In-place File Carving," Proceedings of the Third Annual IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, 2007.

 

G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, V. Marziale, "Forensic Discovery Auditing of Digital Evidence Containers," Journal of Digital Investigation, Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2007, pp. 88-97.

 

V. Roussev, Y. Chen, T. Bourg, G. G. Richard III, "md5bloom: Forensic Filesystem Hashing Revisited," Proceedings of the 2006 Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2006), West Lafayette, IN.

 

V. Roussev, G. Priego, G. G. Richard III, "TouchSync: Lightweight Synchronization for Ad-Hoc Mobile Collaboration," Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems (CTS 2006).

 

G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "Next Generation Digital Forensics," Communications of the ACM, February 2006.

 

G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "Toward Secure, Audited Processing of Digital Evidence: Filesystem Support for Digital Evidence Bags," Proceedings of the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Orlando, FL, 2006.

 

D. Tingstrom, V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, "dRamDisk: Efficient RAM Sharing on a Commodity Cluster," Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC 2006), Phoenix, AZ.

 

F. Adelstein, Y. Gao, G. G. Richard III, "Automatically Creating Realistic Targets for Digital Forensics Investigation," Proceedings of the 2005 Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2005), New Orleans, LA.

 

G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "Scalpel: A Frugal, High Performance File Carver," Proceedings of the 2005 Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2005), New Orleans, LA.

 

L. Klos, G. G. Richard III, "A Reliable Extension to the ODMRP Ad Hoc Multicast Protocol," Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Wireless Networks (ICWN 2005).

 

L. Klos, G. G. Richard III, "Reliable Ad Hoc Group Communication Using Local Neighborhoods," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob2005).

 

F. Adelstein, P. Alla, R. Joyce, G. G. Richard III, "Physically Locating Wireless Intruders", Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS), 11(1), pp. 4-19, 2005.

 

Y. Chin, V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, Y. Gao, "Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Forensics," Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Forensics (IFIP 2005).

 

V. Roussev, G. G. Richard III, "Breaking the Performance Wall: The Case for Distributed Digital Forensics," Proceedings of the 2004 Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS 2004), Baltimore, MD.

 

A. Altalhi, G. G. Richard III, "Load-Balanced Routing Through Virtual Paths: A Highly Adaptive and Efficient Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proceedings of the 23rd International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC 2004).

 

F. Adelstein, P. Alla, R. Joyce, G. G. Richard III, "Physically Locating Wireless Intruders," Proceedings of Information Assurance and Security (IAS 2004).

 

Y. Gao, G. G. Richard III, V. Roussev, "Bluepipe: An Architecture for On-the-Spot Digital Forensics," International Journal of Digital Evidence (IJDE), 3(1), 2004.

 

A. Altalhi, G. G. Richard III, "Virtual Paths Routing A Highly Dynamic Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proceedings of the the First International Workshop on Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing (MP2P'04).

 

F. Adelstein, G. G. Richard III, L. Schwiebert, "Distributed Multicast Tree Generation with Dynamic Group Membership," Computer Communications,26(10):1105-1128, June 20, 2003.

 

A. Altalhi, G. G. Richard III, "Dynamic Routes Through Virtual Paths Routing for Ad Hoc Networks," Proceedings of the 2003 Communications, Internet, and Information Technology Conference (CIIT 2003).

 

J. Allard, P. Gonin, M. Singh, G. G. Richard III, "A User Level Framework for Ad hoc Routing," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2002).

 

L. Klos, G. G. Richard III, "Reliable Group Communication in an Ad Hoc Network," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2002).

 

J. Allard, V. Chinta, S. Gundala, G. G. Richard III, "Jini Meets UPnP: An Architecture for Jini/UPnP Interoperability," Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT 2003).

 

V. Mahadevan, M. Abdelguerfi, S. Tu, G. G. Richard III, "Benchmarking Data Replication Performance for The Defense Integrated Military Human Resources System," Proceedings of 2002 International Conference on Communications in Computing (CIC 2002).

 

C. Jiao, L. Schwiebert, G. G. Richard III, "Adaptive Header Compression for Wireless Networks," Proceedings of the 26th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2001). Also a longer version.

 

G. G. Richard III, "Service Advertisement and Discovery: Enabling Universal Device Cooperation," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 4, no. 5, September/October 2000.

 

L. Klos, G. G. Richard III, "Julep: An Environment for the Evaluation of Distributed Process Recovery Protocols," Proceedings of the 2000 Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC 2000).

 

S. Helal, C. Lee, Y. Zhang, G. G. Richard III, "An Architecture for Wireless LAN/WAN Integration," Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, (WCNC 2000).

 

R. Ladner, M. Abdelguerfi, G. G. Richard III, L. Klos, B. Liu, K. Shaw, "A Distributed Virtual Reality Prototype for Real Time GPS Data", Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Telegeoprocessing, 2000.

 

F. Adelstein, G. G. Richard III, L. Schwiebert, "Building Dynamic Multicast Trees in Mobile Networks," Proceedings of the International Workshop on Group Communication (IWGC '99).

 

F. Adelstein, F. Hosch, G. G. Richard III, L. Schwiebert, "Bessie: Portable Generation of Network Descriptions for Simulation," Proc. of 7th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (IC3N '98), pp. 787-791, 1998.

 

G. G. Richard III, "Efficient Vector Time with Dynamic Process Creation and Termination" and figures, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 55, pp. 109-120, 1998.

 

G. G. Richard III, S. Tu, "On Patterns for Practical Fault Tolerant Software in Java," Proc. of the 17th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, pp. 144-150, 1998.

 

G. G. Richard III, M. Singhal, "Complete Process Recovery: Using Vector Time to Handle Multiple Failures in Distributed Systems (revised)," IEEE Concurrency, pp. 50-59, Summer 1997.

 

G. G. Richard III, "Perl and Socket-Based Client/Server Programming in Introductory Operating Systems Classes," Technical Committee on Operating Systems (TCOS) Bulletin, Special Issue on Operating Systems Education, Fall 1996.

 

F. Adelstein, G. G. Richard III, L. Schwiebert, R. Parent, M. Singhal, "A Distributed Graphics Library System," Software Practice and Experience, vol. 24, no. 4, April 1994.

 

G. G. Richard III, M. Singhal, "Using Logging and Asynchronous Checkpointing to Implement Recoverable Distributed Shared Memory," Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, Princeton, NJ, pp. 58-67, October 1993.